Lost Scriptures: Books that Did Not Make It into the New Testament Info

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While most people think that the twenty-seven books of the New
Testament are the only sacred writings of the early Christians, this is
not at all the case. A companion volume to Bart Ehrman's Lost
Christianities, this book offers an anthology of up-to-date and readable
translations of many non-canonical writings from the first centuries
after Christ--texts that have been for the most part lost or neglected
for almost two millennia. Here is an array of remarkably varied writings
from early Christian groups whose visions of Jesus differ dramatically
from our contemporary understanding. Readers will find Gospels
supposedly authored by the apostle Philip, James the brother of Jesus,
Mary Magdalen, and others. There are Acts originally ascribed to John
and to Thecla, Paul's female companion; there are Epistles allegedly
written by Paul to the Roman philosopher Seneca. And there is an
apocalypse by Simon Peter that offers a guided tour of the afterlife,
both the glorious ecstasies of the saints and the horrendous torments of
the damned, and an Epistle by Titus, a companion of Paul, which argues
page after page against sexual love, even within marriage, on the
grounds that physical intimacy leads to damnation. In all, the anthology
includes fifteen Gospels, five non-canonical Acts of the Apostles,
thirteen Epistles, a number of Apocalypses and Secret Books, and several
Canon lists. Ehrman has included a general introduction, plus brief
introductions to each piece. This important anthology gives readers a
vivid picture of the range of beliefs that battled each other in the
first centuries of the Christian era.

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Reviews for Lost Scriptures: Books that Did Not Make It into the New Testament:

4

Mar 19, 2013

Good to gain a familiarity with these early books. Most were pretty fanciful and even absurd; some you can call orthodox and were well respected. However, even in these 'orthodox' works you gotta ask - where's the gospel?? Even they had a very works/merit-based flavor to them (with the exception of maybe 1 Clement). Reading this collection gave me an even stronger confidence that what we have passed down to us in the form of the New Testament is of a much superior stripe. Often times when Good to gain a familiarity with these early books. Most were pretty fanciful and even absurd; some you can call orthodox and were well respected. However, even in these 'orthodox' works you gotta ask - where's the gospel?? Even they had a very works/merit-based flavor to them (with the exception of maybe 1 Clement). Reading this collection gave me an even stronger confidence that what we have passed down to us in the form of the New Testament is of a much superior stripe. Often times when reading these alternate gospels, acts, epistles, and apocalypses I had to ask - is this the best out there? There's just no comparison to the real thing. ...more
4

Jul 25, 2013

This book isnt what I would call exciting reading, but if youre interested in the early religious writings it is informative. There is a short introduction about each of these lost books and then the actual translation. Of course, these books werent actually lost because we have copies of them today, but they were missing for centuries until they were discovered in modern times. They are early gospels, acts, epistles, and apocalypses that seemed to disappear for a time. Some are complete This book isn’t what I would call exciting reading, but if you’re interested in the early religious writings it is informative. There is a short introduction about each of these “lost books” and then the actual translation. Of course, these books weren’t actually “lost” because we have copies of them today, but they were “missing” for centuries until they were discovered in modern times. They are early gospels, acts, epistles, and apocalypses that seemed to disappear for a time. Some are complete translations, some are just fragments, and some are what we have learned from quotes in other writings. Some actually seem like they could have been included in the Bible. They go from interesting and informative to boring and absurd or ridiculous. In one there’s a talking dog. Of course, wasn’t there a talking donkey in the Bible? We also have a smoked tuna that was resurrected and that Mary was checked to make sure she was really a virgin. I wonder who did that? For me, the interesting ones were the Gospel of Mary, the Acts of John and Thecla (Paul’s companion), The Shepherd of Hermas, The Infancy Gospel of Thomas , which I believe are the only writings of Jesus’ early life, and The Coptic Gospel of Thomas, which reveals 114 secret teachings of Jesus. Many say that these writings of Thomas may be closer to what Jesus actually taught than what we find in the New Testament. Of course, I'm also sure that many would adamantly disagree with this statement.

Several of these writings were quite controversial. In a few Jesus has a twin brother, Didymus Judas Thomas. One of the most interesting is the fragmentary Gospel of Mary. There are several references to the intimate relationship she had with Jesus. In one, it states, “there were three Marys who walked with the Lord: A Mary is his sister and his mother and his lover.” In another it references Mary as the “consort of Christ is Mary Magdalene.” In this gospel, she is also given a high status among the apostles, “Jesus loved her more than us.”

I never really knew what it took for an early writing to be accepted as canonical. This book tells me: they had to be ancient (near the time of Jesus), apostolic, catholic, and orthodox. Yet what is considered heresy would definitely depend on your point of view. Most of these early writings were rejected by the church because they preached a Gnostic point of view, leaned toward a too ascetic lifestyle, or were, at the time, thought to be falsely written in the name of an apostle. Yet some modern Bible scholars believe that some of the apostolic writings included in the New Testament were not actually written by who they claim.

I believe this book is actually written as a resource for one of Ehrman’s other books, Lost Christianities. As I mentioned earlier, some of the “lost books” were interesting and some weren’t, and I found myself scanning and skipping through some of them. This book probably would been better if I had read Lost Christianities first. If you’re looking for shocking revelations, this isn’t the book for you. Read this book if you are able to have an open mind about the New Testament and have an interest in early religious writings. It gives insight into these early times, the thoughts of these early writers, and the culture of this time period. Know beforehand that some of these early writings are not that interesting, but it makes for a good reference book.
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4

Dec 24, 2012

Like I said in another review, Ehrman doesn't pretend to be Christian. He's not a Christian. But that shouldn't stop Christians from seeing how ludicrous (and even humorous) some of the alleged "lost scriptures" were. I really enjoyed this book even though I don't trust Ehrman's "professional" opinions at all.

Ehrman implicitly shows how desperate unbelievers (like him) are to present convincing evidence against the Canon of Scripture. There are obvious, self-evident reasons for judging these Like I said in another review, Ehrman doesn't pretend to be Christian. He's not a Christian. But that shouldn't stop Christians from seeing how ludicrous (and even humorous) some of the alleged "lost scriptures" were. I really enjoyed this book even though I don't trust Ehrman's "professional" opinions at all.

Ehrman implicitly shows how desperate unbelievers (like him) are to present convincing evidence against the Canon of Scripture. There are obvious, self-evident reasons for judging these "lost scriptures" as uninspired, non-canonical, and non-authoritative. The most memorable references come from the alleged "lost" Apocalypse of Paul, which claims that, in Hell, people who "break their fast before the appointed hour" are tortured and hung for all eternity "over a channel of water, and their tongues were very dry, and many fruits were placed in their sight, and they were not permitted to take of them." (p. 295). Also, allegedly, some pastors who do not perform their ministry well are tortured in hell "by Tartaruchian angels, having in their hands an iron instrument with three hooks" with which they pierce the pastor's bowels (p. 294). Other pastors get off easier, and are simply pushed into a pit of fire up to their knees and stoned in the face by angels.

Similar examples are found in the alleged Apocalypse of Peter, which claims that in hell there is a very deep pit reserved for those who cause premature births, and that pit is filled with "all manner of torment, foulness, and excrement." Opposite to that pit is a place where children sit and shoot lightning bolts from their eyes at fornicators within the pit (see p. 284). Hell also, allegedly, contains places where liars have their lips cut off, people who lust with their eyes get their eyes burned out with red-hot irons, idolaters are chased by demons up and down "high places" for all eternity, and people hang from their eyebrows (!) for all eternity in order to "unceasingly pay the proper penalties" (p. 296).

Almost every one of these "lost scriptures" is just as ludicrous as the examples above. I am grateful that a popular unbelieving critic of Christianity took the time to publish this pathetic attempt to combat the inspired Scriptures of God. ...more
0

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I read this book several years ago and I still refer back to it it is an excellent excellent piece of work! I would highly recommend reading this book!!
5

January 31, 2016

Excellent resource on important writings that offer alternative explanations to the events and people around the Christian mythos.Full Review
5

May 10, 2012

A fascinating compendium of texts that did not make it into the Christian canon. Although Ehrman's stated point is to demonstrate the diversity of early Christianity, he is intellectually honest enough to demonstrate the obvious reasons why most of this shunned scripture was cast aside by the early church.
4

Jun 04, 2014

I don't know how to rate this book since there is minimal, but appropriate, comment by the author. It is essentially a representative collection of documents written around the time of the Christ event (50-300 C.E.) many of which were discovered after the current canon was "established." All of these writings were excluded from current canon usage either because they were not available during the selection process, they were hidden, they were censored, or they were part of the canon of branches I don't know how to rate this book since there is minimal, but appropriate, comment by the author. It is essentially a representative collection of documents written around the time of the Christ event (50-300 C.E.) many of which were discovered after the current canon was "established." All of these writings were excluded from current canon usage either because they were not available during the selection process, they were hidden, they were censored, or they were part of the canon of branches of Christianity that died out and were lost.

This book is a companion and sequel to Ehrman's book The Lost Christianities which gives the historical background of the fits and starts, successes and failures of the early believers. I would strongly recommend reading that book first, and there are frequent references to it in the footnotes. The current book is a collection of the writings from that time and includes much from the recently discovered Nag Hammadi library and other recently found sources as well as other writings passed over for one reason or another.

Ehrman is a biblical archaeologist and as such deals with facts, translations and examples. It is not a book of faith and belief, and Ehrman gives only a brief contextual introduction to each translation. The translations contain letters, gospels and apocalyptic writings not found in the current canon, and those who hold the current biblical canon as "inerrant" may well be shocked when they venture outside of their familiar comfort zone to realize what's out there and what got left behind. Highly recommended to open minded readers who want to see the bible in its historical context. ...more
2

Mar 21, 2009

Not as exciting as it might seem. There is a page on each of the "lost" books, followed by a translation of some part of the text. In some cases only fragments are known from quotations in other writings. Some of the works are presented in their entirety while others only have excerpts given due to their length.

Some of the potentially most interesting - like the Gospel of Mary Magdalen - have not been found in their entirety.

Most of the non-canonical books presented were apparently rejected Not as exciting as it might seem. There is a page on each of the "lost" books, followed by a translation of some part of the text. In some cases only fragments are known from quotations in other writings. Some of the works are presented in their entirety while others only have excerpts given due to their length.

Some of the potentially most interesting - like the Gospel of Mary Magdalen - have not been found in their entirety.

Most of the non-canonical books presented were apparently rejected either because they are heavily slanted toward Gnostics and/or the Ascetic lifestyle or because they were determined to have been falsely written in the name of an apostle.

If you're looking for shocking & scandalous revelations about what the Church cut out of the official Bible, this is not the book for you. ...more
2

Jan 02, 2011

I hadn't read any apocryphal Scriptures before, so I found the texts in this book rather interesting. However, I was disappointed by the lack of commentary -- each text had a brief introductory page with multiple footnotes directing the reader to the author's Lost Christianities: The Battles for Scripture & the Faiths We Never Knew. While the introduction makes it clear that this book is intended as a companion text and not a standalone one, it would've been nice if the cover had made it I hadn't read any apocryphal Scriptures before, so I found the texts in this book rather interesting. However, I was disappointed by the lack of commentary -- each text had a brief introductory page with multiple footnotes directing the reader to the author's Lost Christianities: The Battles for Scripture & the Faiths We Never Knew. While the introduction makes it clear that this book is intended as a companion text and not a standalone one, it would've been nice if the cover had made it clearer. My fault for not looking further into it before picking it up, I suppose, but still disappointing. ...more
4

Oct 27, 2012

This is the kind of book I really should own, because it is impossible to absorb all the material in a single reading. I am left with some highlights that stick in my head (the gnostics were really bizarre) and not a lot of details. Good reading, hard work to get through it all.
2

Dec 21, 2014

Lots of excerpts, especially of those that he often spends the most time introducing.
3

Oct 31, 2019

An interesting journey through discarded scripture. Is our new testament the one God wanted us to read, or were politics involved?
0

Feb 18, 2015

It was a good read. I think a more complete and informed decision regarding faith as opposed to merely accepting the acceptable belief is what makes the difference between finding and losing yourself. When you invest in faith and pursue God, I believe that its a journey that encompasses more than what we are taught in church. Knowing and expanding your understanding is a good approach to deepening why you believe what you believe. This book is a good illustration of how and what information is It was a good read. I think a more complete and informed decision regarding faith as opposed to merely accepting the acceptable belief is what makes the difference between finding and losing yourself. When you invest in faith and pursue God, I believe that its a journey that encompasses more than what we are taught in church. Knowing and expanding your understanding is a good approach to deepening why you believe what you believe. This book is a good illustration of how and what information is out there and lays the foundation for a more complete or at least a larger journey that men of faith have taken throughout history. ...more
4

Apr 25, 2008

I checked this book out from the library because I wanted to read certain books that had been used by the early church, but did not make it into the official cannon of the Bible because they weren't deemed "important" enough. This book also contains numerous "fake" gospels, and heretical texts from the same era. The author, I don't believe, is a Christian, because he lumps all the texts together, and repeatedly calls them ALL "mythical" or "legendary". Regardless, the texts are there, but it I checked this book out from the library because I wanted to read certain books that had been used by the early church, but did not make it into the official cannon of the Bible because they weren't deemed "important" enough. This book also contains numerous "fake" gospels, and heretical texts from the same era. The author, I don't believe, is a Christian, because he lumps all the texts together, and repeatedly calls them ALL "mythical" or "legendary". Regardless, the texts are there, but it does take some reading between the lines to tell which were deemed authentic and orthodox by the early church, and which are outright forgeries. ...more
3

Sep 04, 2012

Ehrman has definitely earned his stripes in biblical exegesis. His analysis and summary of the scriptures is very well done. His conclusions, however, don't follow his analysis. He raised the question over and over "Can all suffering in the world be explained by the judgement of God for sin?" He quoted and summarized a lot of scripture to show that many biblical authors held the view that God judges sin and it causes suffering. He did nothing to show that God's judgment causes all suffering. He Ehrman has definitely earned his stripes in biblical exegesis. His analysis and summary of the scriptures is very well done. His conclusions, however, don't follow his analysis. He raised the question over and over "Can all suffering in the world be explained by the judgement of God for sin?" He quoted and summarized a lot of scripture to show that many biblical authors held the view that God judges sin and it causes suffering. He did nothing to show that God's judgment causes all suffering. He even stated blatantly many times that the biblical authors themselves explain suffering in multiple ways, this being only one. And then he came back to the question again, "can all suffering in the world be explained by the judgement of God for sin?" I had a hard time following his logic, which did not seem to go anywhere. Perhaps that's because I'm thick...or perhaps it's because his logic didn't go anywhere.

As far as his argument about "God's Problem" goes, I would give the book a 1 or 2. I did not see much of a cohesive, coherent or convincing argument at all that God even had a problem. As far as his biblical exegesis goes, I would give him a 5. The man knows his Bible in and out, I'm just not sure where his 'problem' comes into play. ...more
3

Jun 16, 2015

My Blog: http://allthebookblognamesaretaken.bl...

Firstly, I do not read Ehrman's books for his opinions on Christianity. While he is a self-proclaimed agnostic, he is well-versed in Scripture. He knows what he is talking about when he he is reciting the facts of the Bible, and I appreciate that. I have learned a lot about the Bible from reading his books. But as a Christian with a faith that is growing stronger each day, I differ when it comes to many matters of opinion.

That being said, I am My Blog: http://allthebookblognamesaretaken.bl...

Firstly, I do not read Ehrman's books for his opinions on Christianity. While he is a self-proclaimed agnostic, he is well-versed in Scripture. He knows what he is talking about when he he is reciting the facts of the Bible, and I appreciate that. I have learned a lot about the Bible from reading his books. But as a Christian with a faith that is growing stronger each day, I differ when it comes to many matters of opinion.

That being said, I am fascinated by the idea of how the Bible came to be what we know today, who decided what books made it and which ones didn't. I found this one interesting, but it is not necessarily what you call exciting. It presents several texts that were excluded from he New Testament, some very rightfully so. I must confess here that I skimmed the books that were clearly Gnostic.

Unfortunately some of the books are incomplete, so we do not know all their content, length, etc. Most of the time we do not even know who actually wrote the books presented. But they are interesting reads nonetheless - I especially find the book relating events of young Jesus' childhood and his exploits. It is certainly understandable that we would want to know more about Jesus as a child, or at any point in his life, really, but I think we can agree that it is likely not accurate or true.

This is not an easy read by any means - don't let my start and finish dates fool you. Some of the books are incredibly long and it difficult to discern the exact meanings. Each book is prefaced with an introduction, where and when it was found, and when historians generally believe it was written. While many times Ehrman gives a reason for why historians believe it was written at a certain time, but there are also several instances here he does not. This is troublesome, as if there is a reason historians believe it to belong to one century and not another, this should be stated.

That said, I found myself wanting to know more about the books, not just their content. Unfortunately after nearly 2,000 years, this information will likely continue to elude us.

I wavered back and forth between 2 and 3 stars. I like reading about these Scriptures because I am interested in how our Bible came to be. I don't necessarily agree with what these books say however, thus the reason for them being excluded from the New Testament. ...more
3

Feb 10, 2016

By the beginning of the 4th Century AD there was not a single belief system regarding Christian doctrine. Numerous Christian sects had evolvedeach basing their faith and liturgy on disparate manuscripts. Such was especially the case between the Roman church and the Greek-speaking Easts Oriental Orthodoxy, the Assyrian church in Asia Minor, and the Middle East.

To resolve this schism, in 325 AD the Roman Emperor Constantine I called an Ecumenical Council of all his bishops to meet in Bithynia (a By the beginning of the 4th Century AD there was not a single belief system regarding Christian doctrine. Numerous Christian sects had evolved—each basing their faith and liturgy on disparate manuscripts. Such was especially the case between the Roman church and the Greek-speaking East’s Oriental Orthodoxy, the Assyrian church in Asia Minor, and the Middle East.

To resolve this schism, in 325 AD the Roman Emperor Constantine I called an Ecumenical Council of all his bishops to meet in Bithynia (a region in Northern Anatolia—modern day Turkey) to attain consensus of all Christendom on a universal profession of faith. Two critical outcomes were confirmed: the doctrine of the Holy Trinity and the conclusion that the Arian belief that Jesus Christ was an inferior God was heretical. Many documents previously used were proscribed, and the approved sacred manuscripts defined Christian dogma as the “New Testament.”

Not all heresies were resolved in 325 AD Council. Accordingly, in 381, Roman Emperor Theodosius I called the Second Ecumenical Council, or the First Council of Constantople. Pope Damascus I sent his delegates to resolve the heresies of:
1. Apollinarianism- Jesus Christ was God but not fully human.
2. Macedonianism- denied the divinity of the Holy Spirit. He was subordinate to the Father and Son.
3. Arianism- believed that Jesus Christ was not God--he consisted of a human body and a divine mind.
4. Other liturgical beliefs in dispute.

The Council condemned these heresies and confirmed that only 27 manuscripts comprise Christian Scripture. All others are heretical. The creed devised by the Council is the profession of liturgical faith that is widely used by the Catholic Church today—the Gospels of Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John, and other writings—the Epistles of Christ followers, for example.

Over the years various manuscripts were found that expanded the history of Jesus and early Christianity. These lost scriptures are often referred to as the “lost gospels” or pseudepigrapha. For example, the cache of Gnostic writings discovered near Nag Hammadi, Egypt in 1945.

Ehrman presents a potpourri of these lost gospels each preceded with a precise summary. He categorizes them as:

• Non-Canonical Gospels:
o The Coptic Gospel of Thomas
o The Gospel of Mary (Magdalene)
o The Secret Gospel of Mark

• Non-Canonical Acts of the Apostles
o The Acts of John
o The Acts of Thecla
o The Acts of Peter

• Non-Canonical Epistles and Relating Writings
o The Treatise on the Resurrection
o The Letters of Paul to the Laodiceans
o The Letter of Barnabas

• Non-Canonical Apocalypses and Revelatory Treatises
o The Secret Book of John
o On the Origins of the World
o The Shepherd of Hermas

• Canonical Lists
o The Canon of Euebius
o The Muratorian Canon
o The Canon of the Third Synod of Carthage

The narrative in this book is demanding. Nonetheless, for those with the mental stamina and singular purpose, this book will reveal keen insight into early Christianity and the “new” information revealed in these “false Gospels.”
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3

Feb 24, 2017

I feel guilty for not liking this book very much. Ancient writings with esoteric theology -- I should be fascinated! And, in the sense that I've learned about the Marcionites et al., I am. However, I found many of the texts to be dry, rambling, and incoherent. (Surprise!) If you want to read it cover to cover, gird yourself.

That being said, Ehrman's dedication is clear. Just one problem with his writing: this book doesn't know if it wants to be a companion or a standalone. It's labeled as a I feel guilty for not liking this book very much. Ancient writings with esoteric theology -- I should be fascinated! And, in the sense that I've learned about the Marcionites et al., I am. However, I found many of the texts to be dry, rambling, and incoherent. (Surprise!) If you want to read it cover to cover, gird yourself.

That being said, Ehrman's dedication is clear. Just one problem with his writing: this book doesn't know if it wants to be a companion or a standalone. It's labeled as a companion to "Lost Christianities," and it does contain the relevant source materials. However, the prefaces to its excerpts often paraphrase descriptions found in "Lost Christianities" (and maybe Ehrman's book on the New Testament). I went to the companion for bonus information and skimmed instead.

Still worth reading if you want (and I mean really want) a fuller picture of early Christian theology. ...more
5

April 16, 2017

A fascinating introduction to the writings of the early Church. I highly recommend this to all.Full Review
5

Jan 03, 2020

I just started reading this book and it is an eye opener. I would recommend this book to any Christian who has an interest in the history of our church and faith.
3

Oct 17, 2018

Interesting, but I think interest in it might be restricted to theology majors or those really interested in the development of Christianity.
5

Dec 07, 2019

Good compilation of non-canonical biblical texts that offers different perspectives on what a religion that may not seem it, but is much more homogeneous that we might think.
5

Oct 20, 2017

I am not surprised why some of those books didn't make it into the bible...
3

May 19, 2019

A somewhat disappointing anthology of noncanonical early Christian writings. The selected translations are on the dry/pedestrian end of the spectrum. The prefaces and notes are extremely meager. Worst of all many of the texts have been greatly abridged, not always sensibly, so that there are notes referring you to passages that were not included; 1 Clement has had hacked out of it Chapter 36, of great interest to any one interested in the relationship of these texts to the NT or theories that A somewhat disappointing anthology of noncanonical early Christian writings. The selected translations are on the dry/pedestrian end of the spectrum. The prefaces and notes are extremely meager. Worst of all many of the texts have been greatly abridged, not always sensibly, so that there are notes referring you to passages that were not included; 1 Clement has had hacked out of it Chapter 36, of great interest to any one interested in the relationship of these texts to the NT or theories that Clement wrote Hebrews. ...more
3

Jul 28, 2017

"Lost Scriptures", which is not really one book but many, was overall a good way to learn about and read some of the other early books that some--sometimes just a few, sometimes a lot--early Christians thought should be scripture. It's a great way to expand our understanding of what could have been scripture.
This book did take me a while to get through because it is so dense. Ehrman's introductions for each section and each book were concise but informative.
As with most compilation books, the "Lost Scriptures", which is not really one book but many, was overall a good way to learn about and read some of the other early books that some--sometimes just a few, sometimes a lot--early Christians thought should be scripture. It's a great way to expand our understanding of what could have been scripture.
This book did take me a while to get through because it is so dense. Ehrman's introductions for each section and each book were concise but informative.
As with most compilation books, the quality varied. Some of the selections were fascinating and insightful, others were entertaining but very mythological or weird, while some unreadable.
A few from each category:
Fascinating/Insightful: 1 Clement; Didache; Acts of Thecla
Entertaining but Weird: Gospel of Thomas; Infancy Gospel of Thomas; Acts of Peter
Unreadable: 2nd Treatise of the Great Seth; Secret Book of John ...more

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